The New England preacher and school-teacher left their mark on the West. These values were rooted in the day-to-day living conditions. Other sections sent their missionaries; but the real struggle was between sects. Cattle ranching made men fortunes. Migration has become almost a habit in the west. See also Collot, Journey in North America (Paris, 1826), p. 109; Observations on the North American Land Company (London, 1796), pp. Daniel Boone, the great backwoodsman, who combined the occupations of hunter, trader, cattle-raiser, farmer, and surveyor—learning, probably from the traders, of the fertility of the lands on the upper Yadkin, where the traders were wont to rest as they took their way to the Indians, left his Pennsylvania home with his father, and passed down the Great Valley road to that stream. But when discovery was made of the salt springs of the Kanawha, and the Holston, and Kentucky, and central New York, the West began to be freed from dependence on the coast. XV, 144; Logan, History of Upper South Carolina. It is evident that the unifying tendencies of the Revolutionary period were facilitated by the previous cooperation in the regulation of the frontier. This was the case from the early colonial days.  Travelers at the close of the War of 1812 met droves of more than a thousand cattle and swine from the interior of Ohio going to Pennsylvania to fatten for the Philadelphia market. Communication was no less difficult, though the problem was met with characteristic ingenuity and energy. Settling the frontier brought out the best and the worst in people. The 19th century was the age of imperialism. , The rising steam navigation on western waters, the opening of the Erie Canal, and the westward extension of cotton culture added five frontier states to the Union in this period. The same conditions aid in explaining the difficulty of instituting a strong government in the period of the confederacy. In this connection may be noted also the influence of frontier conditions in permitting lax business honor, inflated paper currency and wild-cat banking. Cones’, Lewis and Clarke’s Expedition, I, pp. Most celebrated of these conferences was the Albany congress of 1754, called to treat with the Six Nations, and to consider plans of union. 37. The writer has traveled much amongst the first class, the real pioneers. The isolation of the region increased its peculiarly American tendencies, and the need of transportation facilities to connect it with the East called out important schemes of internal improvement, which will be noted farther on. The general failure of the revolutions of 1848 left the industrialized nation states dominated by a socially and politically conservative but ambitious middle class. Compare Wilson, Division and Reunion, pp. Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. Frontier: located at or near a border. Since the days when the fleet of Columbus sailed into the waters of the New World, America has been another name for opportunity, and the people of the United States have taken their tone from the incessant expansion which has not only been open but has even been forced upon them. Writers have discussed the subjects of tariff, land, and internal improvement, as subsidiary to the slavery question. It represented that composite nationality which the contemporary United States exhibits, that juxtaposition of non-English groups, occupying a valley or a little settlement, and presenting reflections of the map of Europe in their variety. The “American Frontier,” began with the first days of European settlement on the Atlantic coast and the eastern rivers. They had to deal with hot summers and ice-cold winters, infestations of grasshoppers, prairie fires, and possible confrontations with Native Americans. 21.  Each expedition was an epitome of the previous factors in western advance. The Indian was a common danger, demanding united action. From 1856 to 1875 silver was found in southern Arizona, then Colorado and Nevada. The gambler and desperado, the regulators of the Carolinas and the vigilantes of California, are types of that line of scum that the waves of advancing civilization bore before them, and of the growth of spontaneous organs of authority where legal authority was absent. Are You Thinking of a Career in Secondary Schools? When the mines and the cow pens were still near the fall line the traders’ pack trains were tinkling across the Alleghanies, and the French on the Great Lakes were fortifying their posts, alarmed by the British trader’s birch canoe. On the effect of the fur trade in opening the routes of migration, see the author’s Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin. This chapter introduces the concept of frontier … The result is that to the frontier the American intellect owes its striking characteristics. Barbed wire was invented, so wood was no longer necessary for poling and fencing. There were very few border controls on the south-western frontier. Narrative and Critical History of America, VIII, p.10; Sparks’ Washington Works, IX, pp. Some were miners from England or Wales. The jealousy and the fears of the East were powerless in the face of the demands of the frontiersmen. The effects of the struggle of the landed and the landless States, and of the ordinance of 1787, need no discussion. And so various are the opinions and habits, and so recent and imperfect is the acquaintance, and so sparse are the settlements of the West, that no homogeneous public sentiment can be formed to legislate immediately into being the requisite institutions.  He may see how the mining experience in the lead regions of Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa was applied to the mining laws of the Rockies, and how our Indian policy has been a series of experimentations on successive frontiers. He is the occupant for the time being, pays no rent, and feels as independent as the “lord of the manor.” With a horse, cow, and one or two breeders of swine, he strikes into the woods with his family, and becomes the founder of a new county, or perhaps state. In short, it was a region mediating between New England and the South, and the East and the West. In the South there was even a dependence on the Northern colonies for articles of food. We shall consider the whole frontier belt, including the Indian country and the outer margin of the “settled area” of the census reports. And most vitalizing activities of the colonization of the confederacy may become of the localities in grave! 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